West Bengal State Urban Livelihood Mission.

NULM Mission 

To reduce poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor households by enabling them to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities, resulting in an appreciable improvement in their livelihoods on a sustainable basis, through building strong grassroots level institutions of the poor. The mission would aim at providing shelter equipped with essential services to the urban homeless in a phased manner. In addition, the Mission would also address livelihood concerns of the urban street vendors by facilitating access to suitable spaces, institutional credit, social security and skills to the urban street vendors for accessing emerging market opportunities.

The core belief of National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) is that the poor are entrepreneurial and have innate desire to come out of poverty. The challenge is to unleash their capabilities to generate meaningful and sustainable livelihoods. The first step in this process is motivating the urban poor to form their own institutions. They and their institutions need to be provided sufficient capacity so that they can manage the external environment, access finance, expand their skills, enterprises and assets. This requires continuous and carefully designed handholding support. An external, dedicated and sensitive support structure, from the national level to the city and community levels, is required to induce social mobilisation, institution building and livelihood promotion. 

NULM believes that any livelihood promotion programme can be scaled up in a timebound manner only if driven by the poor and their institutions. Such strong institutional platforms support the poor in building up their own human, social, financial, and other assets. This in turn, enables them access to rights, entitlements, opportunities and services from the public and private sectors, while enhancing their solidarity, voice and bargaining power. 

As per the Constitution (74thAmendment) Act, 1992, urban poverty alleviation is a legitimate function of the Urban Local Bodies (ULB). Therefore, ULBs would need to undertake a lead role for all issues and programmes concerning the urban poor in cities/towns, including skills and livelihoods. 

NULM would aim at universal coverage of the urban poor for skill development and credit facilities. It will strive for skills training of the urban poor for market-based jobs and selfemployment, facilitating easy access to credit.

Street vendors constitute an important segment of the urban population at the bottom of the pyramid. Street vending provides a source of self-employment, and thus acts as a measure of urban poverty alleviation without major Government intervention. They have a prominent place in the urban supply chain and are an integral part of the economic growth process within urban areas. NULM would aim at facilitating access to suitable spaces, institutional credit, social security and skills to the urban street vendors for accessing emerging market opportunities. 

Urban homeless persons who live without shelter or social security/ protection are the most vulnerable class, even while they contribute towards sustaining cities with their cheap labour. Life on the streets involves surviving continuously at the edge, in a physically brutalized and challenging environment. There is a need for appropriate policy intervention to address the challenges faced by homeless people, with regard to shelter, social housing and social protection. Accordingly, NULM would aim at providing shelter equipped with essential services to the urban homeless in a phased manner. 

NULM would place a very high emphasis on convergence with schemes/programmes of the relevant line Ministries/Departments and programmes of state governments dealing with skills, livelihoods, entrepreneurship development, health, education, social assistance, etc. An alliance strategy will be sought with all concerned departments to promote skills training of rural-urban migrants as a bridge between the livelihoods of the rural and urban poor. 

NULM would aim at partnership with the private sector in providing skill training, employment and operation of shelter for homeless. It will strive for active participation of private and civil society sectors in providing shelter to the urban homeless, skill training and placement of the urban poor and also in facilitating technological, marketing and handholding support for the urban poor entrepreneurs who want to be self-employed and set up their own small businesses or manufacturing units.


The National Urban Health Mission started functioning in the West Bengal in the Financial Year 2013-14 as a subject of National Health Mission with its goal to address the health concerns of urban population through facilitating equitable access to available health facilities by rationalizing and strengthening of the existing capacity of health delivery for improving the health status of the urban poor. The main issue is to provide the primary health care services to the urban population especially urban poor.

Under this Urban Health Mission, cities having population 50000 & above and the district Head Quarters irrespective of their population will be covered. West Bengal, being the most populous State, has 92 such cities which are brought under the per view of NUHM.

Six Municipal Corporations i.e. Kolkata, Howrah, Chandannagore, Asansol, Durgapur & Siliguri and district head quarters of all the districts including the health districts have been included in 2013-14. In 2014-15, 35 cities have also been incorporated. Rest of the cities having population of 50000 & above is covered in the 2015-16 financial year.


Beneficiary-led individual house construction or enhancement :

The fourth component of the mission is assistance to individual eligible families belonging to EWS categories to either construct new houses or enhance existing houses on their own to cover the beneficiaries who are not able to take advantage of other components of the mission. Such families may avail of central assistance of Rs. 1.5 lakh for construction of new houses under the mission. Such beneficiaries should be part of HFA PoA. 7.1 A beneficiary desirous of availing this assistance shall approach the ULBs with adequate documentation regarding availability of land owned by them. Such beneficiaries may be residing either in slums or outside the slums. Beneficiaries in slums which are not being redeveloped can be covered under this component if beneficiaries have a Kutcha house. 7.2 The Urban Local Bodies shall validate the information given by the beneficiary and building plan for the house submitted by beneficiary so that ownership of land and other details of beneficiary like economic status and eligibility can be ascertained. In addition, the condition of the houses e.g. Kutcha, semi-kutcha etc. of the prospective beneficiary should be checked with SECC data to ensure beneficiary’s consequent eligibility for construction of new housing. SECC data regarding number of rooms, details of family members etc. should also be checked to ensure beneficiary’s eligibility for enhancement. 7.3 On the basis of these applications, ULBs will prepare an integrated city wide housing project for such individual beneficiaries in accordance with the City Development Plan (CDP) or other such plans of the city to ensure construction of proposed houses are as per planning norms of the city and scheme is implemented in an integrated manner. Individual applicants for assistance shall not be considered. 7.4 Such Projects would be approved by States in SLSMC. 7.5 While approving project for individual house construction, Urban Local Bodies and State/ UT should ensure that required finance for constructing the planned house is available to the beneficiary from different sources including his own contribution, GoI assistance, State Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation 11 Government assistance etc. In no case, GoI assistance will be released for house where balance cost of construction is not tied up, as otherwise release of GoI assistance may result into half constructed houses. 7.6 State/UT or cities may also contribute financially for such individual house construction. Central assistance will be released to the bank accounts of beneficiaries identified in projects through States/UTs as per recommendations of State/UT. 7.7 Though the funds from Central Government to State Governments would be released in lump-sum including assistance for this component, State Government should release financial assistance to the beneficiaries in 3-4 instalments depending on progress of construction of the house. Beneficiary may start the construction using his own funds or any other fund and GoI assistance will be released in proportion to the construction by individual beneficiary. The last instalment of Rs. 30,000/- of GoI assistance should be released only after completion of the house. 7.8 The progress of such individual houses should be tracked through geo-tagged photographs so that each house can be monitored effectively. States will be required to develop a system for tracking progress of such houses through geo-tagged photographs.

Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP) :

The third component of the mission is affordable housing in partnership. This is a supply side intervention. The Mission will provide financial assistance to EWS houses being built with different partnerships by States/UTs/Cities. 6.1 To increase availability of houses for EWS category at an affordable rate, States/UTs, either through its agencies or in partnership with private sector including industries, can plan affordable housing projects. Central Assistance at the rate of Rs. 1.5 Lakh per EWS house would be available for all EWS houses in such projects. 6.2 The States/UTs would decide on an upper ceiling on the sale price of EWS houses in rupees per square meter of carpet area in such projects with an objective to make them affordable and accessible to the intended beneficiaries. For that purpose, State and cities may extend other concessions such as their State subsidy, land at affordable cost, stamp duty exemption.

Credit-Linked Subsidy Scheme:

The Mission, in order to expand institutional credit flow to the housing needs of urban poor will implement credit linked subsidy component as a demand side intervention. Credit linked subsidy will be provided on home loans taken by eligible urban poor (EWS/LIG) for acquisition, construction of house. 5.1 Beneficiaries of Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) seeking housing loans from Banks, Housing Finance Companies and other such institutions would be eligible for an interest subsidy at the rate of 6.5 % for a tenure of 15 years or during tenure of loan whichever is lower. The Net Present Value (NPV) of the interest subsidy will be calculated at a discount rate of 9 %. 5.2 The credit linked subsidy will be available only for loan amounts uptoRs 6 lakhs and additional loans beyond Rs. 6 lakhs, if any, will be at nonsubsidized rate. Interest subsidy will be credited upfront to the loan account of beneficiaries through lending institutions resulting in reduced effective housing loan and Equated Monthly Instalment (EMI). Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation 7 5.3 Credit linked subsidy would be available for housing loans availed for new construction and addition of rooms, kitchen, toilet etc. to existing dwellings as incremental housing. The carpet area of houses being constructed under this component of the mission should be upto 30 square metres and 60 square metres for EWS and LIG, respectively in order to avail of this credit linked subsidy. The beneficiary, at his/her discretion, can build a house of larger area but interest subvention would be limited to first Rs. 6 lakh only. 5.4 Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) and National Housing Bank (NHB) have been identified as Central Nodal Agencies (CNAs) to channelize this subsidy to the lending institutions and for monitoring the progress of this component. Ministry may notify other institutions as CNA in future. 5.5 Primary Lending Institutions (PLIs) can register only with one CNA by signing MoU as provided in Annexure 1. 5.6 CNAs will be responsible for ensuring proper implementation and monitoring of the scheme and will put in place appropriate mechanisms for the purpose. CNAs will provide periodic monitoring inputs to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation through regular monthly and quarterly reports as per Annexure 2. 5.7 State/UTs/ULBs/PLIs shall link beneficiary identification to Aadhaar, Voter card, any other unique identification or a certificate of house ownership from Revenue Authority of Beneficiary’s native district to avoid duplication. 5.8 Preference under the Scheme, subject to beneficiaries being from EWS/LIG segments, should be given to Manual Scavengers, Women (with overriding preference to widows), persons belonging to Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes, Minorities, Persons with disabilities and Transgender. 5.9 State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA) identified by State/UT for implementing the mission will facilitate the identified eligible beneficiaries in getting approvals and documents, etc. to avail of credit linked subsidy. 5.10 For identification as an EWS or LIG beneficiary under the scheme, an individual loan applicant will submit self-certificate/affidavit as proof of income. 5.11 In case a borrower who has taken a housing loan and availed of interest subvention under the scheme but later on switches to another PLI for balance transfer, such beneficiary will not be eligible or claim the benefit of interest subvention again. 5.12 Under the Mission, beneficiaries can take advantage under one component only. Since other three components are to be implemented by State Government through Urban Local Bodies/ Authorities etc. and this component is to be implemented by PLIs, therefore, in order that beneficiaries do not take advantage of more than one component, PLIs should take NOCs quarterly from State/UT Governments or designated agency of State/UT Governments for the list of beneficiaries being given benefits under credit linked subsidy. For enabling this process, the beneficiaries should be linked to his/her Aadhaar/Voter ID Card/Any other unique identification Number or a certificate of house ownership from Revenue Authority of Beneficiary’s native district and State/UT Government or its designated agency should furnish the NOC within 15 days of receipt of such request.


Beneficiary Led Construction: - (Work in Progress)

Total No: of Beneficiary (F.Y-2015-16)-1290

Total Project Cost: Rs 52.22 Cr.

Total No- of Beneficiary (FY-2016-17)-1945

Total Project: 71.51Cr.


Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)


The Mission Providing basic services (e.g. water supply, sewerage, urban transport) to households and build amenities in cities which will improve the quality of life for all, especially the poor and the disadvantaged is a national priority. An estimate of the funds required over a 20 year period, at 2009-10 prices, was made by the High Powered Expert Committee (HPEC) during 2011. The Committee estimated that Rs. 39.2 lakh crore was required for creation of urban infrastructure, including Rs. 17.3 lakh crore for urban roads and Rs. 8 lakh crore for services, such as water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and storm water drains. Moreover, the requirement for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) was separately estimated to be Rs. 19.9 lakh crore. Learnings from the earlier Mission have shown that infrastructure creation should have a direct impact on the real needs of people, such as providing taps and toilet connections to all households. This means that the focus should be on infrastructure creation that has a direct link to provision of better services to people and this was explicitly stated by the President of India in his speeches to the Joint Sessions of the Parliament on 9 June, 2014 and 23 February, 2015. Therefore, the purpose of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is to (i) ensure that every household has access to a tap with assured supply of water and a sewerage connection; (ii) increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery and well maintained open spaces (e.g. parks); and (iii) reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport (e.g. walking and cycling). All these outcomes are valued by citizens, particularly women, and indicators and standards have been prescribed by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) in the form of Service Level Benchmarks (SLBs). However, the pursuit of better outcomes will not stop with the provision of taps and sewerage connections to all (universal coverage). Other benchmarks will be targeted following a step-by-step process after achieving the benchmark of universal coverage. Such a gradual process of achieving benchmarks is called “incrementalism”. This does not mean that other SLBs are less important, but that in the incremental process SLBs are achieved gradually according to National Priorities. In the case of urban transport the benchmark will be to reduce pollution in cities while construction and maintenance of storm water drains is expected to reduce, and ultimately eliminate, flooding in cities, thereby making cities resilient. Earlier, the MoUD used to give project-by-project sanctions. In the AMRUT this has been replaced by approval of the State Annual Action Plan once a year by the MoUD and the States have to give project sanctions and approval at their end. In this way, the AMRUT makes States equal partners in planning and implementation of projects, thus actualizing the spirit of cooperative federalism. A sound institutional structure is the foundation to make Missions successful. Therefore, Capacity Building and a set of Reforms have been included in the Mission. Reforms will lead to improvement in service delivery, mobilization of resources and making municipal functioning more transparent and functionaries more accountable, while Capacity Building will empower municipal functionaries and lead to timely completion of projects.

Thrust Areas

The Mission will focus on the following Thrust Areas: i. Water Supply, ii. Sewerage facilities and septage management, iii. Storm Water drains to reduce flooding, iv. Pedestrian, non-motorized and public transport facilities, parking spaces, and v. Enhancing amenity value of cities by creating and upgrading green spaces, parks and recreation centers, especially for children.



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